WWII Aircraft Warplane Development 1939-45
At the same time, engineers designed a way to eject the canopy in an emergency, in case the sliding mechanism became stuck. The motivation to complete the Hurricane increased as Germany built up its air force with Bf fighters, which were also inexplicably and distressingly powered by Rolls-Royce engines. Production was held up while waiting for the improved Merlin II engine to be developed.
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Surprisingly, it was only now that the wooden propeller design that had been used since the First World War was replaced by a three-bladed metal prop. To make the Hurricane into a true fighter, armor was added to resist enemy fire, and eight guns were mounted on the wings. A later version had 12 guns, and used a less flammable cooling solution in the engine.
In , the government ordered planes, a decision they would not regret. The Hurricane continued to be improved throughout the war, but it was difficult to test the alterations, because the planes were in so much demand for actual combat. Click here for specifications about the Spitfire and Hurricane.
This 6, kg bomb load; ceiling was 19,ft 5,m. Like the La ncas ter, the Halifax had a crew length of 87ft 3in 26m. In the second half of the of seven and a ran ge of 1, miles 3,km with possessed a very tall main und ercarriage. Production of u-ar the Lancaster fo rmed the backbone of B omber Com ma nd, along with the Halifax, and ca rried the largest bombs, includ- 5,l b 2,kg of bom bs; its maximum spee d was the Stirling was held up by Lu ftwaffe bombing raid s, but ing the gia nt 22,OOOlb 'Grand S lam '. Illustrated is the prototype La ncaster I, a conve rted M anchester.
The first four-engined bomber 10 be used operationally in the war, the Short Stirling with four Hercules radials initially scent into squadron serv ice in August Because of its lour-aspect-ratio wing its service ceiling was limited. In one vital respect it The Boeing B S uperfortress represented a quantum leap in aircraft design. With its high speed ofmph, pressurised cabin, two 'firsts' , the first four-engined mon oplane bomber to differed fro m all other aircraft in Britain , for it had no remotely com rolled gun turr ets and range of over 3, miles, it u'as remarkable in that the original official go into service with the RAF and the first to go on oper- propeller.
It was in fact jet-p rope lled, and the only ma- requirement was issued in February The B was the type which dropped thefirst two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and ations in the Second World War. The Hercu les de livered 1,hp, and with these Heinkel He and He , whic h had also flown in the Stirlin g had a maximum speed of m ph p roto type form.
Frank Wh inle had pioneered gas tur bine design devel- of the period. It was to carry 2,lb Its all-up weigh t was 59,l b 26,kg.
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Design and development and a loaded weight of 3,b 1,kg. A tricycle un- and , initially, a ventra l two-gun 'dustbin'. Later the ven- of the airframe was entrusted to the Gloster Aircraft A second prototype was built, but later cras hed when dercarriage, pressu risation and heavy defensive arma - tral tur ret was rem oved and a two-gun dor sal turret Co mpany under the terms of specifica tion E. T he turrets had hydraulic recu perat or s, bu t un for - 'E' stand ing for expe rime nta l. T he first prototype continue d flying at inter vals Boeing had been working on designs of such a tun ately the location of two of them coincided with the thr ough to with higher powere d engine s and other bo mbe r since , and three prototypes had been or- RAF ro undel on the fuselage.
By using the roundel as a refine men ts. In it was put on perma nent display in dered in The project was known as the model , target, ene my fighte rs were able to put the turrets out of the Science Museu m in Lond on. As a result , the recu perators had to be moved. In Novembe r the RAF issued a specification for famous as the B Superfortress which was to lay waste Through 0 and Britain was developing and a twin-e ngined jet fighte r based on designs submitted by the cities of japan by dropping the first two atom ic gaining operational experience on the types of large G loster Aircraft.
In Febru ar y 1 an ord er was placed bo mbs on Hiroshima and N agasaki. Even to consider lon g-ran ge bomber whic h would form the backbon e of for twelve 'G loster-W hittle' aircraft, a type which was to such an incredibly advanced project in , with Bomber Co mma nd's operations at night. At the same become the Gloster M eteor. In the work. It was to have far-reac hing consequences as com - Russia two great air fleets would conduct a round-the -clock panies in both countries turne d towa rds the gas tur bine In the early hou rs of 22 ju ne Hitler invaded the cam paign, a form of air warfare never before seen.
Soviet Uni on in Operation Barbarossa. I turbojet ClI - torio us Western Allies and those nations defea ted or left aircraft had been destroyed on the gr ound and in the air. It can all be Losse s of bases and equip ment contin ued as the othe r, On 15 M ay a 29ft -span 8m sing le-seat jet engine industries of the USA and Britain, and it led the trac ed back to W hittle and the E.
German army adva nced , In the early stages the main op- monopl an e, the E. Heavily armed, the u'as produced at the rale of 1, per month, and production far ontstripped most other S ecolldll'ilrldll'fIr typ es. T he Pe-2 com bat-tested in Spa in. M ost of the bombers in Soviet had a span of just over 5 1ft 15m and a maximum operational service were also obsolescent and suffered speed of m ph k ml h.
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T here then began a steady flow Germa ns approached M oscow a remarkable operation of fighters an d bombers including Tomahawks, Kitty- was under taken. Threaten ed factories were moved by hawks, Hurricanes, Airacobras and Boston s. As the war railway to east of th e Ura l mountain s and to Siberia. It progressed more advanced types were supplied.
In total, was a mammoth undertaking, but it was successfully thc USA ultim ately sent 14, aircraft to Ru ssia, while concluded. The Lu ftwaffe had failed to develop a suit- Britain 's dir ect contribution includ ed no fewer tha n able long-ran ge bom ber and, therefore, the new factory 2, Hurricanes. This was flown in October 0 and put into lar ge-scale p roduction in M arch Its armament was two cannon and two mach ine-gun s, and it had a top speed of mph krn!japuwehofeni.tk
The Cars, Tanks and Airplanes of WWII
Ultimately the Russians built 36, s. Like the Lu ftwaffe, the Soviet Air Force co nce ntra ted on light and medium twin-engin e short- range aircraft. A typical exa mple was the Petlyakov Pe-2 with a thre e-m an Capable of lnJer mph, the Petlyakou Pe-2 was a firs t- crew, two M-1 05R in-line en gines of 1,1OOhp and car- class light bomber design, also used as a figh ter and fo r re- rying a bomb load of up to 2,l b I,OOOkg. It was produced ill large numbers. The Bf was a In the middle of , near ly two years into the Second smaller mac hine all round, and its wing area of Both fighters had a tha n half a decade earlier , and both were in large-scale maximum spee d of just oyer kmJh m ph , how- production.
At this tim e drop tank s were little used, and without Wh en, in the mids, they had designed the two them both fight ers were limited to an effective com bat fighters, both Regin ald Mi tchell and Willi M esserschmin radius of abo ut miles km. Each sought to produ ce a The Bf ' Friedrich' was the lighter of the two sho rt- range intercep tor fight er with the high est possible fighters, its loaded weight of kg 6, Ib being spee d and clim bing performan ce, mating the smallest ab out kg lb less than that of thc Spitfire VB.
On possible airframe to the most power ful eng ine then avail- the other hand, the larger wing of the Sp itfire gave it a able. That points in commo n.
Aircraft of the Second World War: The Development of the Warplane - Google книги
Both were low-win g mon oplanes meant the Bf was inferior to the British fighter in a with all-met al stressed-s kin co nstruction, faired coc kpits turn ing fight. The Spitfire VB was the more heavily armed, carry ing Wh cn co nsidering the relative mer its of these two 20mm Hispan o canno n and four 0. T he 'Friedric h-Z', in effective air superiority fighters ill service at the end of the Second Ifbrld Ifur. Vickers See pages 1.
If the designer contrast, was arme d principally for fighter-to-fighter co ncentrates on improvi ng one aspect of performan ce or co mbat and had a single 15mm cannon and two 7.
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Argu ably,Willi M cssersch min did slightly better than Throug hout the remai nder of the war the deve lop- Regina ld Mitchell in des igning the smallest possible ment of fighter aircraft in G reat Britain and Ge rmany. Two broadly comparable machines uhich ranked as the most effective ai r superiority fighter s ill service ill mid-1 See pages 64 and 5 its camouflaged hangar ill northern France. S pitfire:Vickers; M essersclnnitt: v ia Schliephake.
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The Spitfire XII was optimised fo r operations at lou' altitu de, and had its unngs clipped CO give all increased rate of roll,. On one of these the str ucture was liable to suffer a catastrophi c failure paths, the well-proven Spitfire and Bf designs were and break up. To co pe with each major incre ase in developed to squeeze the last drop of performance out of weight, therefore , a fighte r's airframe had to be strength- them.
On the other path, new fighter type s were bu ilt ened to restore its safe loading factor. Costain that emerged from each path of development, and see During the Second World War Supermarine pu shed how they fared in service.
Records of the Army Air Forces [AAF]
It speaks equally highl y for will be seen that the Spitfire Mk XIV had a wing loading further than anyb ody else. Pushing the Well-proven De si gn s major improvement to the performance came in the design the Spitfire to take the new engine. The 'bo ttom line' of these changes was that during its The Spitfire VB and the Bf F-2 were well into their sp ring of with the intr oduction into ser vice of the The box below su mmarises Spitfire development.
It long deve lopment life the handling characteristics of the respective development processes in mid-I These Spitfire Mark IX. This was powered by the new Merlin puts some figure s to the improvement in performance Spitfire deteriorated steadily. Test pilot Alex Hen shaw had followed, and would continue to follow, more or less 61 engine fitted with two supercharger blower s in series, that resulted from that extra power. It also shows the in- described their effect: common lines. Successive variants of the se fighter s em- one feeding into the other. At sea level the new engine creases in weight and their prog ressive effect on the ployed more powerful and therefore heavier engines to dewloped a maximum of 1,hp, just under hp fighter 's wing loading for each mark for which figures I loved the Sp itfire, in all o f her many version s.
But I have boost their maximum speed and climbing performance. At high altitude the effect of are given, the fighter 's wing area remained the same. It to admit that the later Marks, althoug h they were faster They carried more powerful and therefore heavier ar- the two- stage supercharger was more profound. At maments. They carried larger and therefore heavier 30,ft 9, m the Merlin 45 , with the single-stage D evelopment of the Spitfire Figures for init ial production oersion of each uariant fuel loads to pr ovide the increa ses in range that opera- supercharger, developed ab out hp.
At the same alti- tional pilot s demanded. And they carried more and tude the Merlin 61, the same basic engine but with the Mark Entered ser vice Engin e power Maximum spe ed Weight normal load ed Win g loading therefore heavier armour and other item s of operational two- stage supercharger, developed about 1,02 0hp , or equipment.
The new fighter was on the ground or in normal flight the in- fighter was powered by the 2,hp Griffon 61 eng ine, IX June 1,hp mph 7, 1b In a 6g turn ever y part of the greater than the Merlin.